How does a girl get aids
Several factors can increase the risk of HIV in women. For example, during vaginal or anal sex, a woman has a greater risk for getting HIV because, in general, receptive sex is riskier than insertive sex. HIV is spread through the blood, pre-seminal fluids, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, or breast milk of a person who has HIV. Age-related thinning and dryness of the vagina may also increase the risk of HIV in older women. A woman's risk of HIV can also increase if her partner engages in high-risk behaviors, such as injection drug use or having sex with other partners without using condoms. However, birth control and pregnancy are two issues that can affect HIV treatment in women.
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HIV and Specific Populations
Vaginal sex is one of the primary ways a person can become infected with HIV. According to the U. Globally, the figures are even more dismaying. While the sexual transmission of HIV in the U. This is especially true in Africa where most new infections are among heterosexuals. In these populations, vaginal sex is the predominant route of infection. From a purely statistical standpoint, anal sex is considered the highest risk activity with an almost fold greater risk of infection compared to vaginal sex.
But this assessment is somewhat misleading, at least from an individual perspective. Consider for a moment that women are three to four times more likely to get HIV from men than the other way around. Conversely, there are some men who are far more likely to get HIV than others.
Vulnerabilities vary by individual, so assessing what the real risk of vaginal sex requires a better understanding of the factors that place some women and men at greater risk than others.
The risk of HIV from unprotected vaginal sex is higher among women for a number of reasons. From a physiological standpoint, the tissues of the vagina epithelium are far more susceptible to HIV than those of the penis. HIV is able to pass through these tissues when the immune system recognizes the invading virus and send defensive cells called macrophages and dendritic cells to "grab and drag" them through the lining to be destroyed.
By doing so, the body helps facilitate its own infection. And, because the surface area of the vaginal epithelium is far greater than that of the male urethra, the opportunity for infection is increased, often exponentially. Other physiological vulnerabilities include:. While the daily use of an HIV drug called pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP can dramatically decrease the risk of HIV in an uninfected partner, there is evidence that works less well in women.
Research published in suggests the level of the active drug molecule in vaginal tissue isn't near as high as in rectal tissue. None of this, of course, takes into account any of the social vulnerabilities that can place women at increased risk.
These include sexual violence in relationships which not only steals a woman's chance for self-protection but can result in damage to delicate vaginal tissue. All of these contribute to higher rates of HIV in women. The fact that men are less susceptible to HIV than women shouldn't underplay the fact that they also have vulnerabilities that can increase their personal risk of infection.
We know, for example, that an uncircumcised penis can facilitate infection due to the bacteria-rich environment beneath the foreskin.
Sexually transmitted infections and genital tract infections can further increase the risk of HIV. It creates a double standard that can place a man at greater risk of HIV by associating virility with multiple partners or other high-risk behaviors. Among them:. A high viral load during acute infection the stage immediately following exposure is associated with an increase in HIV risk.
Drinking alcohol or taking drugs can lower inhibitions and affects a person's ability to make safe choices, such as using condoms or remaining adherent to HIV drug therapy. From the perspective of per-exposure risk the chance of getting HIV from a single sexual act , risk can vary based on gender, the viral load of the HIV-positive partner, and even the part of the world you live in.
These figures do not take into account any other factors that can increase risk, including the presence of an STI, injecting drug use, or a co-existing infection like hepatitis C. Assessing your personal risk for HIV should never be a numbers game. Doing so may entirely erase the risk of transmission. And don't forget the tried-and-true condom, which is associated with a decrease in risk if used correctly and consistently.
By formulating a holistic approach to prevention, you can continue to enjoy a healthy sex life while protecting yourself or a loved one from the risk of HIV. Get information on prevention, symptoms, and treatment to better ensure a long and healthy life. HIV Basics U. Updated March 13, Ramjee G, Daniels B. Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: a systematic review. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Front Immunol.
Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples. PLoS Med.
J Infect Dis. Prodger JL, Kaul R. The biology of how circumcision reduces HIV susceptibility: broader implications for the prevention field. Updated October 8, HIV Risk Behaviors. Updated November 13, Updated August 6, Risk by Sexual Activity. Risk Factors in Women. Risk Factors in Men. Shared Vulnerabilities. Per-Exposure Risk. Accidental Exposure Risk. View All. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback!
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Data Protection Choices
All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. Abstinence, or not having any type of sex, is the best way to avoid HIV.
Vaginal sex is one of the primary ways a person can become infected with HIV. According to the U. Globally, the figures are even more dismaying. While the sexual transmission of HIV in the U.
How Do People Get AIDS?
Throughout the world, HIV is most often spread through sex. This is because the fragile tissues of the vagina can tear slightly during sex and let the virus enter the body. This is especially likely among girls under age The vagina also has a large surface area that can be exposed to the virus, thus increasing risk of infection. Similarly, anal tissues are also fragile and prone to tearing slightly during sex. Women are at higher risk of infection via anal sex than by vaginal sex with an infected man. Most women around the world and in the United States who have HIV were infected through sex with a man. Forced sex, transactional sex, and marriage to much older men increase women's risk of infection in many places around the world. Having multiple sex partners can also increase the risk of exposure to the virus that causes the disease.
What Is the Risk of HIV From Vaginal Sex?
This tool allows you to access information that is individually tailored to meet your needs. Just answer the following questions to get started! No selection made. All selections are optional.
Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. Compared to circumcised men, uncircumcised men are more than twice as likely to acquire HIV-1 each time they have unprotected sex with an infected woman, according to a team of researchers in the US and Kenya.
HIV/AIDS in Women
When considering the issue of female-to-female sexual transmission it is important to draw a distinction between the risk of transmission by this route and diagnoses of HIV infection in women who identify as lesbian. There have been only six reported cases of woman-to-woman sexual transmission, and these reports need to be viewed with the same caution as any other case reports of transmission through oral sex cunnilingus. In the early years of the epidemic, investigations of the source of infection in US women failed to identify any cases of female-to-female transmission. For example, a follow-up of all women identified as HIV-positive through the blood donation services in the US interviewed women, and identified only three who had had sex with women.
Visit coronavirus. You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:. For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane found in the rectum, vagina, mouth, or tip of the penis ; open cuts or sores; or by direct injection. HIV can only be spread through specific activities.
Vaginal Sex and HIV Risk
- Он повернулся и направился к своему кабинету. Сьюзан открыла рот, но слова застряли у нее в горле. Хейл - Северная Дакота. Она замерла и непроизвольно задержала дыхание, чувствуя на себе взгляд Хейла. Сьюзан повернулась, и Хейл, пропуская ее вперед, сделал широкий взмах рукой, точно приветствуя ее возвращение в Третий узел. - После вас, Сью, - сказал. ГЛАВА 41 В кладовке третьего этажа отеля Альфонсо XIII на полу без сознания лежала горничная.
Человек в очках в железной оправе положил в карман ее халата связку ключей.
По выражению лица панка Беккер понял, что тот знает, о ком идет речь. Мелькнул лучик надежды. Но уже через минуту парень скривился в гримасе. Он с силой стукнул бутылкой по столу и вцепился в рубашку Беккера. - Она девушка Эдуардо, болван.
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Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей. Как и все криптографы АНБ, Хейл зарабатывал огромные деньги, однако вовсе не стремился держать этот факт при.
Он ездил на белом лотосе с люком на крыше и звуковой системой с мощными динамиками.
How Is HIV Transmitted?
У Танкадо не было причин подозревать, что код в Интернете не является оригиналом. Никто не имел к нему доступа, кроме него самого и Северной Дакоты. Если бы Танкадо не вернулся к анализу программы после ее выпуска свет, он ничего бы не узнал про этот черный ход. Но он так долго трудился над Цифровой крепостью, что вряд ли ему захотелось бы к ней возвращаться.
Он перевел взгляд на слова, нацарапанные на ее руке.
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В сознании Сьюзан промелькнуло все то, что она читала о приемах самозащиты. Она попыталась бороться, но тело ее не слушалось. Она точно окаменела. И закрыла. О Боже, пожалуйста. Не. ГЛАВА 65 Бринкерхофф мерил шагами кабинет Мидж Милкен.
Наконец парень посмотрел на. - Scusi? - Он оказался итальянцем. - Аегорortо.